How many of you have used a HAM radio repeater before? If you have, you must have heard the terms “offset” and “CTCSS tones” being thrown around often. Both of these are essential to the functioning of a radio repeater.
A radio repeater is basically a far-reaching alternative to your regular handheld transceiver. A handheld transceiver or a mobile HAM radio has a short antenna that limits its range. However, a radio repeater uses a high-gain antenna to boost your receiving and transmitting area.
Let us look at how Offset and CTCSS tones help the radio repeater in achieving this.
What are offsets?
Offsets refer to the differences between the two frequencies of a radio repeater. Since repeaters allow you to listen and speak at the same time, they use two different frequencies simultaneously.
One frequency receives the incoming signals, while the other transmits the signals you send. Now imagine the repeater using a single channel for sending and receiving frequencies. You would end up listening to yourself!
That’s where offsets come in. They do the job of keeping both frequencies apart to leave sufficient space between the two for filtering.
The transmitter/receiver offsets are standardized to make the HAM radio repeater easier to use. Let’s take a look at the Standardisation Offset chart to understand it better.
|Amateur Radio Band||Offset|
|70 centimeters||-5 MHz|
|1.25 metres||-1.6 MHz|
|2 metres||-+600 kHz|
|6 metres||-500 kHz|
|10 metres||-100 kHz|
Luckily for you, most HAM radio repeaters sold these days set the offset automatically as you choose your frequency.
What are the CTCSS tones?
Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System, or CTCSS, is a signaling scheme that helps your HAM radio repeater in various aspects.
How did the CTCSS tones come to exist?
With the steady growth in the use of HAM radio repeaters, all the radio channels were frequently in use. As a result, a station could access more than one repeater at any given time. To overcome this hurdle, CTCSS tones were introduced.
CTCSS tones use a sub-audible tone of the transmitted signal trying to access the repeater. With its sharp filters, the repeater recognizes the right tone and lets the signal enter. In this manner, the right CTCSS tone is allowed to enter the repeater, leaving no room for undesired signals.
Functions of CTCSS tones
The CTCSS tone functions as an access method necessary to activate HAM radio repeaters. These repeaters operate when they receive a specific CTCSS tone.
When more than one groups use a single radio frequency, CTCSS recognizes users from a different tone and mutes them. It also adds a low-frequency tone to the voice to filter noise.
Both offset and CTCSS tones are an indispensable part of a HAM radio repeater. While most radio repeaters already contain these, it is essential to understand how they work to use your radio repeater properly.